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JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING 26, 2014.y., pp. 149-158


METHODS FOR ESTIMATION OF EXTERNAL COSTS OF TRANSPORT
 
DOI: 10.14415/zbornikGFS26.15
UDC: 656.1:338.5
CC-BY-SA 4.0 license
Author : Jokanović, Igor; Kamel, Howaida
 
 Summary:
 External costs of transport represent the impact on society expressed in monetary units, as a result of transport activities, but not directly accounted for from activities managed by a road agency and/or by users of transport services. Road users require expensive infrastructure, and have various external costs, both in transport (congestion and accidents) and towards the rest of population (accidents, pollution, noise, environmental degradation). Analysis of the external costs of transport is usually, in the area of environmental economics, used to determine and analyze the benefits that are accomplished by investments in the protection and improvement of the environment in the transport area. Externalities are assessed so that they can be, to some extent, connected with assets invested in roads. This paper presents general overview of external costs of transport with particular emphasis on methods for their estimation, necessary inputs and outputs useful for costs internalization.
 
 Keywords:
 Transport, environment, external costs, estimate, internalization